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Formation of Brain and Its Functionality

When we want to thank someone profusely, we say “Please accept our heartfelt thanks!”. But it is not the heart but it is our brain, that “feels”! No one says” brain felt thanks”.

The Forms of Nervous System

The brain is a highly developed mass of nerves tissue that forms the upper end of the central nervous system. The average adult brain weighs 1.4 kg (approximately 2% of the total body weight). The brain and the spine and their nerves form the central nervous system.

The brain is well protected by the rigid casing formed by the bones of the skull. The skull is a quarter-inch (0.60 cm) thick at the top and thicker at the base.

The brain is kept immersed in cerebrospinal fluid that cushions the brain from shocks – and vigorous movements of the head. The brain floats in this fluid its weight-reducing from 1.4 kg to less than 100 gm. This cerebrospinal fluid normally contains glucose, salts, enzymes, and a few while cells but no red blood cells.

human brain

Three Connective Tissue Membranes

The three connective tissue membranes that line the skull and vertebral canal and enclose the brain and spinal cord are called “meninges”. The brain is divided into three groups, as follows:-

Hindbrain (rhombencephalon) consisting of

a) Medulla Oblongata – functions as a major pathway for nerve impulses entering and leaving the skull, responsible for the regulation of heart, respiration, swallowing, regulation of blood vessels, etc.

b) Pons Varolli – This part links medulla oblongata with thalamus and contains numerous nerve tracts.

c) Cerebellum – This is the largest part of the hindbrain. It has an outer grey cortex and a core of the white matter. It has two hemispheres. The cerebellum maintains muscle activities, muscle tone, converting muscular contractions into smooth coordinated movements.

Midbrain:- This small portion connects the hindbrain to the forebrain.
Forebrain:- Subdivided into:-

a) Cerebrum – is the largest and highly developed part of the brain. It is composed of two hemispheres. Each hemisphere has an outer layer of grey matter, the important cerebral cortex, below which lies the white matter, containing basal ganglia. The cerebrum is responsible for the initiation & coordination of all voluntary functions in the body.

b) Diencephalon – This includes the thalamus and hypothalamus.

Thalamus:- It is here that conscious awareness of messages as sensations – temperature, pain, touch, etc – probably begins.

Hypothalamus – controls emotional activities, sleep, body temperature, thirst, hunger, eating, sexual function, etc.

Amazing facts about Brain

The brain has some 30,000 millions of Neurons and 5 to 10 times that number of glial cells. (Glial cells are special connective tissues of the central nervous system). Each of the 30,000 million neurons connects with others – some as many as 60,000 times.

For passing signals, the neurons do not touch each other. Signals are passed at the “spark gap” fashion at a speed of 350 km/h.

The cerebral cortex, the outer layer of the cerebrum, 40% of the brain by weight, is composed of 15 thousand millions of neurons.

Though the brain represents only 2% of a man’s body weight, it needs 20% of the oxygen he inhales and one-fifth of the blood his body needs.

The brain is totally dependent on a constant supply of oxygen, blood, and of course Glucose.

Though the brain conveys the feeling of pain, the brain it felt has no pain when it is cut.

Neurons (Nerve cells)

Neurons are specialized nerve cells, for transmitting electrical nerve impulses and thus carry information from one part of the body to another. The point of contact of one neuron with another is called “synapse”.

An impulse, when it reaches the synapse, causes the release of a “neurotransmitter” which diffuses across the gap and triggers an electrical impulse in the next neuron. Some brain cells have more than 15,000 synapses.

Grey Matter

Grey matter means dark colored tissues of the central Nervous system composed mainly of neurons, dendrites (shorter branching neurons), and glial cells. Grey matter forms the important part of the brain, the cerebral cortex which is directly responsible for consciousness, perception, memory, thought, mental ability intellect, etc.

White Matter

This is a paler version of grey matter and is the nerve tissue of the central nervous system. It contains more nerve fibers and large amounts of insulating material called “myelin”. In the brain, the white matter lies within the grey layer of the cerebral cortex.

Basal Ganglia

These are several large masses of grey matter embedded deep within the white matter of the cerebrum. The basal ganglia have complex neural connections with the cerebral cortex and thalamus. They are involved with the regulation of voluntary movements at a subconscious level.

By the age of 35, a man would have been loosing 1000 of brain nerve cells a day. With age, the brain loses weight. But the loss of nerve cells is compensated, reducing the damage. But as we age, there may be progressive loss of sense of smell, the taste gets less acute and there may be hearing loss.

Generally speaking, the brain has two hemispheres – the right controlling the left side of the body and the left hemisphere controlling the right side of the body.

Brain Disorders

Major problems are strokes. A stroke is caused by a clot in the blood vessels of the brain. Symptoms range from minor mental lapses to paralysis and death. Cerebral tumors are abnormal multiplication of brain cells. Malignant tumors spread fast, causing progressive neurological disabilities. Brain injuries also could be serious. Any injury to the head has to be immediately taken care of.

brain disorder

Other Brain Disorders Are:

Parkinsonism – a disease affecting basal – ganglia. Could be due to the depletion of ‘Dopamine’ in the brain.

Cerebral Palsy – a brain abnormality resulting in weakness and in-coordination of the limbs. The brain damage could have occurred at birth, or caused by hemorrhage, viral infection, etc.

The most common manifestation is spastic paralysis. Cerebral diplegia is a form of cerebral palsy in which there is widespread damage. Hemiplegia is paralysis of one side of the body.

It is caused by disease of the opposite hemisphere of the brain. Poliomyelitis (polio) is caused by an infectious disease involving the spinal cord and brain.

Encephalitis – is inflammation of the brain caused by a viral or bacterial infection. It may cause postencephalitic parkinsonism.

Alzheimer’s disease – a progressive form of dementia occurring in middle age or later. There is no cure for this disease. It is associated with the degeneration of the brain. Dementia causes memory disorders, personality changes, impaired reasoning ability, and disorientation.

Meningitis – is the inflammation of the membranes of the brain due to virus infection or bacteria that is responsible for pneumonia, syphilis, or Tuberculosis. Symptoms could be an intense headache, fever, loss of appetite, muscle rigidity, and in severe cases, fits, convulsions, vomiting, delirium, leading to death.

Epilepsy – It is one of the groups of disorders of brain function characterized by recurrent attacks that occur suddenly. Unconsciousness accompanied by convulsions occur.

One can get his brain to perform well in the same way as he does for his muscles. That is, one has to exercise his brain. Some tips to keep your brain alive are:

  • Close your eyes and move about in your room trying to get your clothes or open the almirah etc using only your senses to guide you. Take a bath or shower or soap your body with eyes shut.
  • Follow the second hand of the clock for 1 minute. Think of nothing else. Close your eyes and try to open them in exactly one moment.
  • Assign numerical values 1 to 26 to each letter of the alphabet. ( A = 1, B = 2 and so on ) think of 5 words in which the sum of letters equals 38.
  • Break a monotonous routine activity. For instance change the route you use to your office, daily, or rearrange your office desk.

Things that reduce your brain function:-

  • Avoiding breakfast. Breakfast brings to the brain the much-needed glucose after starving in the night. Therefore if breakfast is not provided, brain function deteriorates.
  • Excessive eating.
  • Smoking: This habit can shrink the brain.
  • Eating too many sweets.
  • Environmental pollution causing oxygen depletion.
  • Inadequate sleep.
  • Sleeping with the head covered with a bedsheet. This way you breathe in more carbon – dioxide than oxygen.
  • Imbalance in Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium chloride levels.
  • Excessive alcohol or coffee.
  • High and low blood sugar.
  • Talking too little or not talking at all. Talking helps to exercise the brain.
  • High fever.
  • Allergic reactions.
  • Psychotic symptoms.

Ayurveda and The Brain

Ayurveda has potent medicines that bolster up the brain function, tone up nerves, increase blood flow to the central Nervous system, improve mental capacity, and improve immunity to brain diseases.

Brain disorders need to be diagnosed and treated properly, therefore the correct way of treatment in the case of brain disorders, is to approach an Ayurvedic Physician. Some of the herbs used are:-

  • Bacopa Monnieri
  • Centella Asiatica
  • Withania Somnifera
  • Asparagus Racemocus
  • Emblica Officinalis
  • Vitis Vinifera
  • Cyperus Rotundus
  • Evolvulus Alsinoides
  • Mucuna Pruriens
  • Embelia Ribes
  • Acorus Calamus
  • Convolvulus Pluricaullis (Sanku Pushpi)
  • Nordostachys Jatamansi

There are also several herbal oils which used externally, are very beneficial.

Positive Thoughts -Why and How?

What is all about positive thoughts? Is it doing things according to one’s own lights or positive thoughts just means being optimistic? Whatever positive thoughts are, by all accounts, they mean having a mental state that’s refreshing, enthusiastic, and never dull.

Positive thoughts keep you alive and kicking –no matter what situation you face. We all know problems do come in life but then would thinking negatively find any port in a storm? Nope! So have positive thoughts!

positive thinking
positive thinking

Positive thoughts can be developed in a number of ways. The best among all is a meditation that would build self-confidence. The alpha and omega of positive thoughts is the belief in yourself and what all you do.

At every turn, having positive thoughts, you should feel confident and think that all will go well with you at the helm. Thinking positively brings luck for sure and it would let you batten down the hatches as you look at every difficulty as a challenge in life.

Even medical experts believe that thinking positive helps to be in homeostasis. Let’s not belabor the point and come to the gist –if you wanna succeed all the time, the first three things you must have are –positive thoughts, positive thoughts, and positive thoughts!

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