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Classification of Behavior Medications and Diseases in Ayurveda

Table of Contents

Purusha

In the Ayurvedic system, the synonym of Purusha is soul. It means the soul resides (lives) in the body, so it is called Purusha.

The body is meaningless without a soul (Purusha). There are two meanings of Purusha in Ayurveda; the first one is the soul (Jeevetma) and the other meaning is body along with the soul.

It is the second meaning that holds significance because the soul without a body is hollow and needs a body for its proper functioning.

The whole ayurvedic system has been amassed for the good of the body.

Purusha
Purusha

Classification

Purusha can be classified into nine (9) categories. They are Ek Dhatwatmak Purusha, Karma Purusha, Dwi Dhatwatmak Purusha, Tri Dhatwatmak Purusha, Panchadhatwatmak, Shad Dhatwatmak Purusha, Sapta Dhatwatmak Purusha, Chaturvinsati Dhatwatmak Purusha, Twenty five Dhatwatmak Purusha. The description of each category is as follows:

1. Ek Dhatwatmak Purusha

Ek means one. So, Ek Dhatwatmak refers to the soul (Jeevatma). Its synonym is Shuddha Purusha.

2. Karma Purusha

It refers to the body along with the soul.

3. Dwi Dhatwatmak Purusha

Dwi means two. So, Dwi Dhatwatmak Purusha means the combination of Jeevatma and body.

4. Tri Dhatwatmak Purusha

Tri means three. So, Tri Dhatwatmak Purusha refers to the combination of soul and body is associated with mind or truth

5. Panchadhatwatmak

Pancha means five. So, Panchadhatwatmak means the visible part in karma Purusha because the entire body according to Hindu philosophy is made up of Panchmahbhoota.

6. Shad Dhatwatmak Purusha

Shad means six. So, Shad Dhatwatmak Karma Purusha refers to six elements and the sixth element is a soul which is called Atma in the language of Hindi. The combination of all 6 constituents is the essence of Shad Dhatwatmak Karma Purusha.

7. Sapta Dhatwatmak Purusha

Sapta means seven. There are two presumptions in Sapta Dhatwatmak Purusha.

The first one states that there’s a composition of Panchamahabhoot, mind (mana) and soul (Atma) and the second presumption states that it is composed of seven elements (Dhatus), i.e., Ras, Rakta (blood), Meda, Mansa(muscles ) , Asthi (bones), Majia and Shukra (reproductive tissue in the body).

8. Chaturvinsati Dhatwatmak Purusha

Chaturvinsati means twenty-four. So, Chaturvinsati Dhatwatmak Purusha means of all 24 elements of this theory are inter-related to each other and are responsible for the augmentation of one another. For instance, stating the theory of evolution of the universe, the element of Avyaki gave a push to the growth of Mahat.

Mahat started Ahankara (pride), and Ahankara gave birth to Pancha Gyanindrya (Pancha Karma indriya and one ubhaya indriya).

Tamasik Ahankar along with Rajsik Ahankar give rise to 5 Tanmatra and the combination of these Ahankars gives birth to Ppanchamahabhoota.

All elements are divided into 2 parts: Prakruti (nature);( the sub-division of which is Aviakt, Mahat, Ahankar, Shabde, Sparbhe, Rupa, Rasa and Gandha (smell) and the 2nd One is Vikar (by-product);(the sub-division of which is as follows: 5 Gyan Indriya, 5 Karma Indriya, 1 Ubhaya Indriya and 5 Maha Bhootas.

9. Twenty-Five Dhatwatmak Purusha

The grouping of Atma and 24 elements Karma Purusha takes the tally to 25. Here, the growth takes place but with the increase in life (age) and hence, the ultimate end is death.

Purva Karma

Description

Purva Karma is the cleansing or purification measure that is undertaken prior to Panchakarma therapy.

When the actual cleansing process of the human body starts, the body needs to be made accustomed to some approved and set system or methods so that the body prepares itself to eliminate the contaminated material.

In simple terms, Purva Karma can be defined as a therapy which prepares a patient for eradicating or removing contaminants from the body.

Purva Karma
Purva Karma

Methods

There are 2 types of Purva Karma methods. They are Oleation (Snehana) and Sweating (Swedana). Description of each of the method is as follows:

Snehana

It is a process when the body is made spongy and flexible and that makes the contaminated material to collapse. It is specifically used for the treatment of bodily disorders. The messaging with oil stimulates the body tissues to disperse contaminated material from itself.

It helps in removing dryness from the body. In this therapy, the oil that is prepared for the treatment is administered, 15-20 minutes after sunrise. There are 2 types of Snehana, i.e. External (Bahya) and Internal (Abhyantar). The description is as follows:

Bahya Snehana

In this type of method, oil (Taila); medicated or plain is used externally for a massage which is known as Abhyanga. The things that need to be taken care of our state of an individual and condition of Doshas.

Abhyantar Snehana

In this type of method, some kind of prescribed medication is given that stimulates a process inside of the body.

There are specific signs to monitor the effectiveness of this therapy, i.e. increase in digestive capacity, loose motions, buoyancy and silkiness of the body, tangible fat in urine samples.

The therapy of Snehana is beneficial in conditions such as Physical exertion, dryness, excessive intake of alcohol, overindulgence in sex, anxiety, and injury, people suffering from Paralysis, Arthritis and severe backache.

Snehana must be avoided on those people on whom Swedana therapy is going to be performed. Besides that, it must be avoided on pregnant women, people suffering from stomach ailments, high fever, and diarrhea, bleeding infection and hairline fracture.

Swedana

It means sweating. Under this therapy, sweat is stimulated from the human body. It eliminated the contaminated material by melting or liquefying them. The basic thing that is used in Swedana is the procedure of heat that encourage sweating.

The conditions in which Swedana is given to the patients are cough, severe headache, paralysis, constipation, and arthritis (pain in joints).

The effectiveness of Swedana therapy is proved by the following symptoms, i.e. Vanishing of Corrhyza, a reprieve from any sought of ache and inflexibility and muscular disorder. A steam bath is the most common form of Swedana Purva Karma therapy.

Both the procedure eliminates the toxins of the body by opening up the channels of the body by soothing the troubled doshas. Most of the Purva Karma therapies are undertaken for the treatment of recurring and inherent ailments. These therapies are carried out in keeping in view a person’s constitution and Vata, Pitta and Kapha Dosha.

Rajayakshma

Description

Rajayakshma is also known by the name of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) and Koch’s Infection named after Robert Koch; a German scientist who did pioneering work in shedding light in tuberculosis. Generally, aged people suffer from this disease.

In Charak Sanhita (A medical treatise in Hindu philosophy) have great in-depth information about the syndrome of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is one of the most fatal communicable diseases that have resulted in widespread deaths across the world.

It is caused by a bacterium known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Rajayakshma
Rajayakshma

TB generally affects lungs, but other body parts such as brain, kidneys, and skeleton can also be infected by this disease. It also infects the reproductive system of the body. Rajayakshma is one of the few diseases that have infected animals too.

General Symptoms

  • Constant coughing
  • High fever
  • Untimely sweating
  • Chest pain
  • Oozing blood while coughing
  • Reduction in body weight
  • Loss of energy
  • Decrease in appetite

Symptoms According To Different Stages

1st Stage—TRIRUPA RAJYAKSHMA

  • Pain in shoulder & Spin.
  • Burning sensation.
  • Fever.

2nd Stage – SHADARUPA RAJYAKSHMA

  • Roughness in voice.
  • Cough.
  • Indigestion.

3rd Stage – EKADASH RUPA RAJYAKSHMA

  • Headache.
  • Fever.
  • Pain.
  • Verbal croakiness.
  • Fever.

General Facts

Most of the people are affected by the sleepy form of TB. It’s a situation when Mycobacterium has to face resistance from the immune system of the body. Patients suffering from AIDS infection have a high risk of being infected with Tuberculosis.

A person having a weak immune system is most likely to be affected by active tuberculosis.

Treatment

The basic treatment of Rajayakshma involves the intake of multiple drugs for a particular number of months or even years for the effective and complete cure of the disease.

The development and diagnosis of TB have improved manifolds due to the arrival of the antibiotics medicines in its treatment.

In the cure of TB, all foodstuff in the gastrointestinal region is transformed into Malas (liquid). So, urine (stool) inpatient needs to be taken care of because, at the time of dehydration, support must remain there in the body.

The latest treatment of TB is such that it seeks to eliminate TB bacilli. There are four antibiotics that are mostly taken during treatment of TB:

  • Isoniazid
  • Rifampin
  • Pyrazinamide
  • Ethambutol

Synonyms

There are 4 known synonyms of the disease in the Sanskrit language. They are Kshaya, Shosh, Rajayakshma, and Rograt. The description of each of the synonyms is as follows:

Kshaya
In this, there is a depletion of body tissues (Dhatus) to such a level that medicines used for treating this ailment get depleted. TB at this stage becomes difficult to treat.

Shosh
In this, there is attenuation and aeration in the tissues of the body that ultimately leads to Shrunken body.

Rajayakshma
It is the head (king) all TB diseases.

Rogprat
In this, tuberculosis is escorted by many symptoms and numerous impediments.

Rasayan

Longevity, extraordinary memory, intelligence par excellence, youth, health, complexion, melodious voice, the strength of body and sense organs, power of expressions, vigor, and so on are all taken care by Rasayan. All Dhatu can be obtained through Rasayan, as it is the best means.

Rejuvenation and maintenance of the physical body, along with keeping the mind from evil and low thoughts are being dealt with by Rasayan, one of the acclaimed concepts.

Food or Aahar, Vihaar or travel or walk, and Aachar or conduct of oneself are also some depictions of remedy given by Rasayan. A person’s immunity, intellect, and mental hygiene are closely related to these remedies depicted by Rasayan.

Rasayan
Rasayan

Rasayan can be classified into two types. They are Kamya Rasayan and Naimittik Rasayan.

Kamya indicates a strong desire or wish. This Rasayan can be classified further into four types. They are:

  • Prana Kamya or longevity
  • Vayasthapan or rejuvenation
  • Medhakamya or promotion of intellect
  • Varna Kamya or complexion

Kamya Rasayan

Human beings are desirous, and therefore, they are filled with one or the other or all these natural desires. The Rasayana that helps to attain fulfillment of these natural desires is known as Kamya Rasayan. Brahmi and Amalaki for Medha and prana Kamya respectively are few examples that fall under this category of Rasayan.

Prana indicates life, and longevity of life is desired in this Prana Kamya. Vayasthapan indicates the rejuvenation of everything (all the pleasures) in life.

To promote your intellect, or intelligence, or thoughts is fulfilled by Medha Kamya. Getting complexion for attraction or beauty is fulfilled by Varna Kamya.

Naimittik Rasayan

Naimittik means serving for a specific cause. In order to restore the health of a patient affected by an ailment or a disease, Rasayana is used to treat the patient. In this process, Rasayana is Nimitta that treats the patient. You can take the example of diabetes being treated with Shillajit, which serves as Rasayan.

As per the methods used or procedures followed, and on the basis of mode of action, In terms of the methods used, Naimittik Rasayan is classified into five types. They are:

  • Vata Tapik or treating outpatients
  • Kuti Praveshik or treating in patients
  • Poshak or Rasvardhak or Nutrition
  • Agnivardhak or bio-transformation
  • Strotoshodak or purification of the microchannels

The description of each Naimittik Rasayan classified according to the methods used is given below:

Vata Tapik:

The Rasayana that is used in daily routine or regularly to cure a disease is known as Vata Tapik It is used to treat outpatients.

Kuti Praveshik:

This Rasayan is used for treating patient people in a room specifically designed for the treatment.

The description of each Naimittik Rasayan classified on the basis of action mode is given below:

Poshak or Rasvardhak:

The process of the food assimilated into Rasadhatu and Shatavari is known as Poshak. This takes place after the food is digested and absorbed.

Agnivardhak:

The Rasayan increases the Agni during its course of action, that is, this Rasayan affects the Jatharagni and Dhatvagni levels or affects digestion and body metabolism by influencing it. For example, Pippali.

Strotoshodak:

The body’s micro-circulation is increased in this. For example, guggul.

Roop

Roop is one of the five tools of Nidhan Panchak to diagnose the disease along with its source and its evolution process as per Ayurveda.

The other tools are Hetu, Poorvaroop, Upshaya, and Samprapti.

Nidhan Panchak includes the process that takes place for converting normal physiology to pathology that causes the disease.

Roop is also known as indicative signs and symptoms of a disease.

When the pathology that leads to the disease completes, few signs and symptoms develop.

Roop
Roop

These are known as the Roopa. There are six main symptoms for Roop or in Ayurveda. Those are:

  • Sansthan
  • Vainjan
  • Linga
  • Lakshan
  • Chinham
  • Akruthi

For the diagnosis of any disease, Roopa is the main way, as per Ayurveda. If all the signs and symptoms of disease present themselves before confirming the disease, then the disease is considered to be severe and sometimes fatal in nature.

You would be able to see those signs and symptoms or the abnormalities, as these are physical in nature. Moreover, these signs and symptoms help the physician to start the therapy and medicines according to the disease diagnosed before it aggravates.

The signs and symptoms of few ailments like hiccups, Amavata or Rheumatoid Arthritis, Chhardi or vomiting, and so on are given below:

Roopa of Hiccups or Hidhma:

Hiccups are classified into five types: Annaja Hikka, Kshudra Hikka, Yamala Hikka, Maha Hikka, and Gambhira Hikka, depending on the causes and the symptoms of them.

Consumption of tough, improper, dry foods and drinks cause Annaja Hikka, and is generally followed by sneezing. It subsides by consumption of accustomed foods & drinks.

Characterized by soft and mild bouts of hiccups caused by exertion that start from the root base of shoulders is known as Kshudra Hikka.

The hiccups that occur during the digestion of food, and are characterized by the tremors in head and neck, vomiting, diarrhea, yawning, and so on are known as Yamala Hikka.

Arising from deep inside with forceful bouts, Maha Hikka is characterized by rigidity of brows, red eyes, loss of movements of the body, speech, and so on.

Arising from the large intestine or umbilical cord, Gambhiri Hikka has the signs and symptoms like yawning and vibrating sound.

Signs and symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis are loss of taste, thirst, lack of enthusiasm, heaviness, fever, indigestion, pain all over the body, and the main Roopa is swelling of joints and body parts.

Chhardi is of five types, and they are Vataja Chhardi, Pittaja Chhardi, Kaphaja Chhardi, Sannipataja, and Dwisthaarthaja.

One would experience pain in the head, neck, and navel regions, with dryness in the mouth, hoarseness of voice, pricking pain, and so on. Moreover, one would hear the loud sound of eructation while vomiting with great distress and severe impulse when one has Vataja Chhardi. Moreover, the vomitus is either black in color or frothy in nature.

Pittaja Chhardi has the symptoms of fainting, thirst, dryness of the mouth, & burning in head, palate, and eyes.

Moreover, Vomitus is bitter and sometimes smoky in Pittaja Chhardi. In Kaphaja Chhardi, vomitus is solid, sweet, and white, and is accompanied with horripilation. The vomitus is salty, sour, blue, and so on in Sannipataja. Factors that stress a person psychologically and inflict the senses are known as Dwisthaarthaja.

Samanya Guna

A. DESCRIPTION

Samanya guna is that property, quality or situation where things are classified or categorized under the same category, under a single authority.

For instance, Samanya guna was most prevalent in ancient India where chakravartin (universal) kings used to rule.

The entire region from the Himalayas in the north to Cape Comorin in the south and from Brahmaputra River in the east to the land beyond Indus was under the domain and control of one king.

Samanya
Samanya

B. OTHER MEANING

Samanya also means simple, general, uniform or similar. In the philosophy of Samanya, balance is maintained in all spheres. Here, the superior things must be decreased and inferior ones must be increased in proportion. This way, equilibrium will be maintained between the two. All the three principles are denoted by the terms; Smaha Pelitua, Kshimha Vardhitva, and Vridhi Hrashitva.

In fact, the principle of Samanya is very much contemporary in nature because if everything is treated equally then there would be no differences. According to Hindu philosophy, in the sphere of religion, Samanya Dharma must be followed regardless of peculiarities in the caste system in India. It might not be pragmatic in application but its implication can do wonders for this country.

C. CLASSIFICATION

Samanya can be classified into five categories irrespective of their attributes and implications in reality. They are Para-apara Bheda (difference), Apar Samanya, Para – Apar Samanya (similarity), Dravya Guna Bheda, and Guna Samanya. The description of each category is as follows:-

1. PARA-APARA BHEDA.

It refers to the resemblance or connection between more than two things. Para means the other side of the border. Similarity exists on the borderline which is common to both the sides; this situation can be termed as Par Samanya.

2. APAR SAMANYA

It’s a very rare kind of similarity that is found in very few people. It is not Samanya in application means that it is not usually found, it is very rare and precious. For instance, the human ability to speak is very rare and can’t be imitated by any other species on planet earth.

3. PARA-APAR SAMANYA

It refers to a relationship that exists between the Para (another side) and Apara Samanya (rare similarity). For instance, the human being comes under the category of para – apar Samanya.

4. DRAVYA GUNA BHEDA

This kind of Samanya is very unusual because in Darvya guna Samanya, similarity or connection exists between two things or more than two things, only on the basis of matter (Darvya). For instance, when something is found similar in human beings, it is said that it’s a human tendency or it’s a very general thing.

5. GUNA SAMANYA

It is that kind of similarity that brings everything under one roof. Things that have similar properties are classified under guna Samanya.

The principle of guna Samanya is applied even in ayurvedic treatments, for example, the product of milk and ghee has identical (similar) attributes. Both Milk & ghee has soothing features that are used when there are cases of burn injury.

Samanya

A. DESCRIPTION

Samanya guna is that property, quality or situation where things are classified or categorized under the same category, under a single authority.

For instance, Samanya guna was most prevalent in ancient India where chakravartin (universal) kings used to rule.

The entire region from the Himalayas in the north to Cape Comorin in the south and from Brahmaputra River in the east to the land beyond Indus was under the domain and control of one king.

Samanya
Samanya

B. OTHER MEANING

Samanya also means simple, general, uniform or similar. In the philosophy of Samanya, balance is maintained in all spheres. Here, the superior things must be decreased and inferior ones must be increased in proportion. This way, equilibrium will be maintained between the two. All the three principles are denoted by the terms; Smaha Pelitua, Kshimha Vardhitva, and Vridhi Hrashitva.

In fact, the principle of Samanya is very much contemporary in nature because if everything is treated equally then there would be no differences. According to Hindu philosophy, in the sphere of religion, Samanya Dharma must be followed regardless of peculiarities in the caste system in India. It might not be pragmatic in application but its implication can do wonders for this country.

C. CLASSIFICATION

Samanya can be classified into five categories irrespective of their attributes and implications in reality. They are Para-Apara Bheda (difference), Apar Samanya, Para – Apar Samanya (similarity), Dravya Guna Bheda, and Guna Samanya. The description of each category is as follows:-

1. PARA-APARA BHEDA.

It refers to the resemblance or connection between more than two things. Para means the other side of the border. Similarity exists on the borderline which is common to both the sides; this situation can be termed as Par Samanya.

2. APAR SAMANYA

It’s a very rare kind of similarity that is found in very few people. It is not Samanya in application means that it is not usually found, it is very rare and precious. For instance, the human ability to speak is very rare and can’t be imitated by any other species on planet earth.

3. PARA-APAR SAMANYA

It refers to a relationship that exists between the Para (another side) and Apara Samanya (rare similarity). For instance, the human being comes under the category of para – apar Samanya.

4. DRAVYA GUNA BHEDA

This kind of Samanya is very unusual because in Darvya guna Samanya, similarity or connection exists between two things or more than two things, only on the basis of matter (Darvya). For instance, when something is found similar in human beings, it is said that it’s a human tendency or it’s a very general thing.

5. GUNA SAMANYA

It is that kind of similarity that brings everything under one roof. Things that have similar properties are classified under guna Samanya.

The principle of guna Samanya is applied even in ayurvedic treatments, for example, the product of milk and ghee has identical (similar) attributes. Both Milk & ghee has soothing features that are used when there are cases of burn injury.

Samavaya

Intimate relation is the perfect meaning of Samavaya. When something is inseparable from its constituents, it is Samavaya. Even if something is inseparable from its contents, and is interdependent with them, it is still having its name. A relation that is either inseparable or intimate is known as Samavaya.

The relationship between matter and its function, and matter and its property is Samavaya. It is one of the seven categories of Padarth Vidnyan, which is nothing but knowledge of raw materials, according to Ayurveda.

The other categories are Dravya or substance, Guna or quality, Karma or deed or activity, Pramana or evidence, Samanya or similarity, and Vishesh or peculiarity.

Samavaya
Samavaya

The cause that is concomitant, or a force that is combining, or inherence that is inseparable is known as Samavaya.

Among the seven categories of Vaiseshika, Samavaya is one. Due to the presence of combining forces, two Paramanus or atoms become one Dvyanuka.

The dyad is connected to its constituents, that is, the two atoms, by Samavaya, as both dyad and atoms possess different qualities. This herb is the connecting force for things that cannot exist independently.

Samavaya is not only discussed in Ayurveda but also in the scriptures, various philosophies like that of Sankara, Ramanuja or Madhwa, Puranas and so on. Samyukta-Samavaya is known as united inherence.

This precious herb is the connection between any sense organ and the attributive or active aspect of the object by virtue of attributes or Guna and actions or karma, being related to the substance through inherence. Samaveda-Samavaya is known as inherent-inherence.

It is the connection between a sense organ and its perception capacity of an object in its own manner or its own inherence. There is a distinction between the one that is universal and the one that is particular.

This distinction is real, and therefore the relation is considered to be that of intimate union. The quality of Samavaya is eternal.

Where Samayoga is accidental conjunction or combination, and quality of things, Samavaya is necessary conjunction or connection or bond.

The members with inseparable connections fall under the category of Samavaya.

When you try to break the connection between the things that fall under this herb, it is not possible to part them without destroying either one or all the things in that bonding. You can produce or destroy things under Samavaya without destroying or producing them.

The things under this herb category are normally felt than seen. They are not normally physical things that would exist without each other. For example, quality or attribute, or property would exist with any substance, and you would not be able to part them. If you try parting the quality of the thing, the substance would cease existing. The salty taste in the salt and sweetness in sugar or jaggery are natural.

If you remove the taste from salt or sugar, they would stop being salt or sugar, and that is Samavaya. Milk is a part of cow; however, if you separate the milk from the cow, both exist independently without any problem, and therefore, it is not Samavaya.

Ritucharya

Description

Ritucharya is the grouping of two terms, i.e. Ritu which means seasons and Charya means routine. Its complete meaning means the procedure that is to be followed in diverse seasons. Here, the distribution of the seasons (Ritus) is done keeping in sync with the position of the sun. Each season lasts for approximately, two months.

Significance
Ritucharya preserves the environmental value in the shape of balance in different seasons to support defensive and social remedy and this is the principle on which ayurvedic system of medicines has put emphasis because it is said that prevention is better than cure.

Seasons
There are different seasons in Ritucharya, i.e. Winter Season (Hemant), Spring Season (Vasant), Summer Season (Grishma), and Rainy Season (Varsha), Autumn Season (Sharadrutu). The description of each of the season is as follows:

Ritucharya
Ritucharya

Winter Season
In the Sanskrit language, the winter season is called Hemant. This Ritu starts from mid-November to mid-February. In the winter season, the cold atmosphere develops and the temperature starts decreasing. A chilly and cold wind began to blow which causes an imbalance in Vata Dosha and Kapha Dosha.

In this season, the air is on height and is under depression (pressure or force). A heavy diet needs to be taken that must include milk and its products, wheat, carrot and radish, tomatoes and sugary food. Yoga exercises are extremely valuable for the human body in this season. Massage with almond oil and exercise must be done regularly.

Spring Season
In the Sanskrit language, the spring season is called Vasant. This Ritu starts from mid-march to mid-may.

In the spring season, Sanchit Kapha is stressed by the rays of the sun. So, it is very much obvious that cough, cold and other respiratory problems might get develops.

To get rid of excess cough, it is recommended to encourage vomiting process. A mixture of dried ginger (Adrak) and honey (Shehad) is useful in treating Kapha Dosha.

The sharp flavor dominates spring season. Nasal remedy or therapy must be undertaken.

Summer Season
In Sanskrit language, summer season is called Grishma. This Ritu starts from mid-may to mid-July. In the summer season, the sun decreases the dampness in the environment and facilitated the trapping of heat on the earth’s atmosphere. Excessive workouts and sex must be avoided.

The intake of liquid products and honey must be increased so as to prevent dehydration and fatigue. Cotton clothes must be worn during the summer season as they provide a soothing effect on the human body. Kattu flavor dominates summer season. Massage must be done with a Chandan paste and bath must be taken with the cold water

Rainy Season
In the Sanskrit language, the rainy season is known as Varsha. This Ritu starts from mid-July to mid-September. In the rainy season, though humidity or moisture in the air increases, but it remains cool. Lukewarm water must be drunk to balance Vata dosha Prakopa. Vinegary flavor dominates the rainy season.

Autumn Season
In the Sanskrit language, the autumn season is called Sharadrutu. This Ritu starts from mid-September to mid-November. In the autumn season, heat from the sun is responsible for the growth of Pitta Prakopa. Salty flavor dominates the autumn season.

 

Sartha Indriya Guna

Description

Sartha Guna (substance or essence) is also known as senses. Senses have a very vital role to plays in the growth and functioning of human beings.

Each of the 5 senses or Indriya co-ordinates with each other and maintains a perfect balance with nature.

There are five essential senses that are related to human beings.

They are Sound (Shabda), Touch (Sparsha), Vision (Rupa), Taste (Rasa), Smell (Gandha). The description of each of the Sartha guna is as follows:

Sartha Indriya Guna
Sartha Indriya Guna

Sound

In Sanskrit language, it is known as Shabda. It is one of the belongings of space or Akasha Mahabhoota (one of the main constituent of Panchamahabhoota). It is interesting to note that besides space element every Mahabhoota (constituent or element) have the essence of Sparsha guna.

Three things are responsible for the creation of a sound on earth. Even, the machines, be it of any kind when turned into operational mode produces a sound.

Devices that create any kind of sound such as broadcasting sounds are the contributory causes whereas Sanyoga, Vibhaga, and Shabda are emulated factors. They are Sanyog (Combination), Vibhaga (splitting) and Shabda (Sound).

Sanyog
It means the combination or amalgamation of two things. For instance, when any kind of object is hit, it produces a sound.

Vibhaga
It means splitting or separation. For instance, on being split into two parts, a paper (soft or hard material) always produces a sound.

Shabda
It means a particular sound produces another kind of sound. According, to the ayurvedic system of medicine, Shabda is divided into Dhwanitmak (sound) and Vanitmak (letters). Shabda forms an important part of human speech therapy.

Touch

In Sanskrit language, it is known as Sparsha. It is felt by the skin (Tvak Indriva) and it is the main attribute of Vayu Mahabhoota (Air element). Sparsha is classified into 3 categories, which are Cold (Shita), Hot (Ushna) and Anushnashita (Neither cold nor hot).

Vision

In Sanskrit language, it is called Rupa. Besides, air and space element (Mahabhoota) every other element possess rupa guna. It is the key guna of Teja (fire) element and is categorized into 7 parts, i.e. White (Shukla or Shweta), Blue (Nila), Yellow (pita), Green (Harita), Brown (Kapish), Red (Rakta; identification with blood) and Spotted or Marked (Chitra).

The Jal Mahabhoota or water element is sometimes signified by dull white color (Shweta) and earth element or Prithvi Mahabhoota is signified by all Sapta rupa guna (seven rupa guna).

Taste

In Sanskrit language, it is called Rasa. This is a kind of guna which is sensed or felt by tongue. The contributory causes that create rasa guna are Panchamahabhootas. There are 6 kinds of rasa guna, i.e. Sweet (Madhur), Sour (Amla), Salt (Lavan), Bitter (Tikta), and Chilly (Katu), Taste like Alum (Kashaya).

Smell

In Sanskrit language, it is called Gandha. Gandha guna is taken or received in the body by the nose (by a nasal passage). This Guna is there in earth element or Prithvi Mahabhoota. Good Smell (Surbhi) and Bad Smell (Asurbhi).

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