Knowledge of raw materials is known as Padarth Vidnyan.
There are seven categories of Padarth Vidnyan as per Ayurveda. They are:
- Dravya or substance
- Guna or quality
- Karma or activity or deed
- Pramana or evidence
- Samanya or similarity
- Samavaya or inseparable
- Vishesh or peculiarity
The root word or the original word of Dravya is Dru. One that has the capability to change, combine, divide, or go through a set of changes with time, it is known as Dravya.
You would have observed that almost all the things in our surroundings have this tendency or capability or characteristics, and therefore can be segregated under Dravya. Moreover, if something acts as the substratum for modification, it is also known as Dravya.
In short, the substance can be known as Dravya. If you cannot separate any of the substance’s quality, or property from its mass, then that substance is known as Dravya.
Dravyatva is known as changeability attribute, through which the substance’s modification is changed continuously and without any interruption by that quality of virtue.
The entity cannot be separated from both the Dravya and mode or form. Dravya or Dhruvya means permanence also. It can be divided into two: Karan & Karya Dravya.
Responsible for attraction towards Dravya, guna is an intimate but inactive resident of it. The activities are done by Dravya, and therefore, guna is not like other residents or karma in the Dravya. Dravya’s attraction factor is known as Guna. As per Ayurveda, there are forty-one Gunas, and are as follows:
- Sartha Indriya Guna: These are five Gunas in number and represent senses.
- Gurvadi Guna: These are twenty in number, and are known as Sharirik guna.
- Adhyatmic Guna: These are six Gunas of Atma of living things only.
- Samanya Guna or general property: These Gunas are general ones and there are ten of these.
The process of meeting and separation depends on the factor, karma. It falls under resident Dravya; however, it is different from guna. The activities that a person has done in the past, doing in the present and would do in the future would be known as a deed.
Each of us is responsible for our own karma. Based on our own experiences and creations, karma would be either good or bad. Karma governs one’s life. Karma can be classified into Adhyatmik and Laukika.
It is truth verifier. The way in which truth is verified is known as Pramana. Pramana is classified into four by Charaka, while Sushruta classifies it into five. Charaka’s classification is Pratyaksha, Anumana, Yukti, and Aptopdesha. Sushruta’s classification is Prayiaksha, Anuman, Upamana, Aptopdesha, and Pratyaksha.
Grouping of similar things under the same head or category is known as Samanya. The basic treatment is derived with the help of Samanya therapy. Samanya is classified into five types. They are Para-Apara Bheda, Apar Samanya, Para Apar Samanya, Dravya Guna Bheda, and Guna Samanya.
A relation that is either inseparable or intimate is known as Samavaya. The relationship between matter and its function, and matter and its property is Samavaya.
The special property that differentiates matter from each other is Vishesh. It is classified into three. They are Dravya Vishesha, Guna Vishesha, and Karma Vishesha.
Living matter is made of five great elements of vital importance. They are Earth, Water, Fire, Air, and Space, and are known as Panchamahabhoota, and are units to build everything from medicines to human beings.
In Sanskrit, Pancha means five. Akashiya, Apya, Parthiva, Taijasa, and Vayaviya are different classifications on the basis of majority contents. The property or quality of anything changes with different combinations and permutations of these five elements.
Existence of matter becomes impossible for the lack of space or Aakashamahabhoota with sound as its important sense attribute and non-resistance as its important property.
Inheriting Shabda or sound like an attribute and Chalatwa as its important property, Sparsha or touch is Vayumahabhoota. Next is Agnimahabhoota, whose attribute is vision, and the property is heat.
Earlier Mahabhootas have attributes of sense like, sound and touch are also inherited by Agni. Next is Aapamahabhoota with rasa or taste as its important attribute, and liquidity as important property. This inherits the earlier Mahabhootas’ attributes.
Prithvimahabhoota is the final one with roughness as important property and smells as its important sense attribute. Moreover, it inherits the earlier Mahabhootas’ sense attributes.
Ayurveda summarizes the sensory attributes and main properties of the five great elements into five categories. They are: Akasha Shabda Aapratighata, Vayu Shabda, Sparsha Sparsha Chala, Agni Shabda, Sparsha, Roopa, Sparsha, Roopa Ushna, Aapa (Jala) Shabda, Sparsha, Roopa, Rasa Drava, and Prithwi Shabda, Sparsha, Roopa, Rasa, Gandha Khara
The knowledge of the concept of Panchabhoota would help one understand the working of Ayurveda as science. The first element in existence would be Aakasha. Its equivalence cannot be sky but space. It is essential to know and understand all the elements.
Ayurveda believes that Aaksh is originless and endless, that is, no beginning, no end, and exists everywhere and at all times. In short, it is omnipresent.
Moreover, the logic is that all things and beings need space to be present, including the minutest particle called atom or cell.
The belief is that the outer space reflects the inner space, and thus the concept of omnipresence is proved.
As Aakasha is ever-existent, so is Shabda, the basic sense attribute, and the energy form of Aakasha.
The first Shabda as per Hinduism is AUM. Mantra is formed by grouping many Shabdas. Believing that it is a divine form of treatment, Mantra Chikitsa in Ayurveda is given importance. Mani Chikitsa is the second followed by Aushadhi Chikitsa.
To make us realize the nothingness of the space through movement, Vayu or air is very important. The main sense attribute of it is touch or feeling something, and along with this, it carries the attribute of space, that is, sound.
Anything that moves or has Chalatwa is only because of Vayu or air. Motor or sensory nerve impulses, movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract, joint movements in human beings are possible only through Vata dosha, a major constituent of Vayu.
Vision is the main sense of attribute, and warmth is its important property. The biological humor Pitta dosha’s major constituent is Agni. Apart from providing energy for all activities, it helps in viewing the creation of the world.
Jala helps in chemical, biological and biochemical bondings, and also enables bringing two things and keep them together.
It inherits all the attributes of other elements and has a smell as its main attribute. It helps in building the whole universe with its simple living and non-living blocks.
The term anemia means lack of hemoglobin content.
Anemia is most commonly seen in children and youngsters.
This ailment mostly occurs due to lack of nutrition.
The main causes of anemia are the intake of too much of salty and sour food items, irregular sleep, increase in body temperature, and/or irregular exercise.
There are five types of classifications in Pandu rog caused by Vata, Pitta, Kapha, Sannipata, and Mritbhakshana.
The symptoms of anemia are pallor, dryness of skin, irregular heartbeat, indigestion, exertion, insomnia, loss of appetite, dryness of cornea.
The clinical features are pain in the upper and lower limb, waist, irritability in the skin, increase in heartbeat, swelling around the joints and eyes, general weakness of the body, loss of skin hair, increased blood pressure that leads to frustration and anger, urine color will be dark yellowish and sometimes foul smelling, always sleepy.
Sometimes one feels overexertion in stair climbing. The main prominent veins are swollen and there will be discoloration of nails.
Due to indigestion, burning sensation in the stomach may occur in case of anemia. Anemia is seen in children those who eat pastries, cakes, and junk foods. Anemia also affects the women during pregnancy or women who suffer from heavy menstrual cycles.
There are different types of anemia. The main type, iron deficiency anemia is caused by a deficiency of iron, Vitamin B12, and other supplements necessary to our body.
Pernicious anemia and folic acid deficiency anemia are the other types. The main symptoms of Vitamin B12 and folic acid are a red, sore tongue with reduced taste sense.
The anemia can be diagnosed by taking the blood test, in which they look for number, size, and shape of red blood cells.
Sometimes, X-ray is recommended to check for any internal bleeding in the internal organs, which if not treated at an earlier stage the symptoms may become worse, becoming tired and weak are also symptoms of anemia.
Moreover, you may also develop an increase in the heartbeat, pain in the legs, waist, and thighs when walking. In the case of anemia, the hemoglobin content for males is usually less than 13.0g/dl and for females are less than 12.0g/dl.
According to morphological classification, anemia can be classified into microcytic, normocytic, macrocytic anemia. The possible complication of anemia due to lack of iron the fingernails will be brittle; sometimes spoon-shaped nails can be seen.
The immunity is often reduced which would lead to further complications. Anemia, during pregnancy, has an increased risk of growth retardation of the fetus, premature baby, and low birth weight.
During pregnancy, women lose an average of two milligrams of iron daily, so for this iron rich food like greens, leafy vegetables, dried beans, dried apricots, dried fruits, almond, seaweeds, whole grains, yams should be taken daily.
Certain foods tea, coffee, soft drinks, and ice creams, chocolates, and so on have been found to interfere with iron absorption in the gastrointestinal tracts, and these foods should be avoided.
Treatment & Commonly Used Drugs
Oleation Therapy and Mandura Vatak are popular treatments in Ayurveda. Lauha Kalpa, Mandur Kalpa, Rasa Kalpa, Ghruta, Arishtra, Bhasma, Guggul Kalpa, and Churna are the most commonly used drugs.
As you know, disease means malfunctioning of organ or part in a living being, man, animal, or plant.
Pathogenic microorganisms, parasites, nutritional factors, environmental factors influence our health and become the cause of diseases.
Moreover, toxicity, imbalance of nutrients, environmental factors, the effect of genetic or hereditary problems, and so on cause different kinds of curable and non-curable diseases.
Most of the common diseases can be identified in no time with the help of the regular and universal symptoms; however, some of the diseases that are rare are not easily identifiable.
You would notice that there are signs and symptoms that would develop during the development of pathology of the disease. Pathology deals with the manifestation of anatomy and function of disease. With these signs and symptoms, we will be able to identify the disease, and this is known as Poorvaroop. Poorvaroop is of two types:
- Samanya Poorvaroop
- Vishesh Poorvaroop
Samanya Poorvaroop: The word Samanya means common. It is known as general pre-indicating signs and symptoms of a disease. If we are able to identify the basic type of disease, however, not the subtype, from the signs and symptoms it falls under the category of Samanya Poorvaroop.
For example, if there is excessive blackishness at the back of the neck and on the feet, it can be a pre-indicating sign and symptom of excessive insulin secretion in the body.
If there is swelling in any part of the body, mostly the ankle, for a long duration, wherein you would see that the excess fluid is building up in the tissues (Edema), it can be a pre-indicating sign and symptom of a problem with either heart or kidney.
Vishesh Poorvaroop: The word Vishesh means Special. It is known as Special pre-indicating signs and symptoms of a disease. If we are able to identify the basic type of the disease, and also the subtype of it, from the signs and symptoms, then it falls under the category of Vishesh Poorvaroop.
For example, if a person experiences Wheezing, Coughing, Shortness of Breath, Chest Tightness, Difficulty/Rapid Breathing, these signs, and symptoms indicate asthma.
Let us see the reasons for which Poorvaroop being important. Poorvaroop is very important in three phases: Treatment, Severity of Disease, and Differential Diagnosis.
You can treat most of the common diseases or ailments when you see the pre-indicating signs or symptoms of them, and this would help us in treating them before they emerge as a disease.
For example, in treating constipation or indigestion, you can take the concoction of ginger and jaggery in water.
To prepare this, 100 ml of water is boiled with small pieces of ginger and jiggery. Sieve the contents and use the water to cure these problems.
Severity of disease
In case of a developed disease like malicious cancer, where you would be able to see both the pre-indicating and indicating signs and symptoms of it, it is said that the disease has crossed the treatment levels and is normally difficult or impossible to treat.
Let us say that the indicating signs and symptoms of two or more ailments are similar; however, with the difference in the pre-indicating signs and symptoms, then it is recommended to check the pre-indicating signs and symptoms to diagnose the disease.
FUNDAMENTAL MEANING & USE
Pradhankarma is a part of panchakarma therapy which is considered a very vital treatment in Ayurveda.
Panchakarma internally purifies the body through the use of medicines. Its meaning implies five therapeutic treatments.
Pradhankarma cleanses the body by removing toxins from it. It is one of the significant elements of panchakarma therapy.
DESCRIPTION OF PRADHANKARMA’s ELEMENT
1. Vamana karma.
Vamana means to expel. This Pradhankarma treatment is brought into use to remove toxins from the body through the verbal itinerary (gargle). Vamana material comprises of undigested food. This therapy is brought into use to cure Kaphaja ailments.
Asthma, Obesity, High fever, vomiting, cases of toxication, dyspepsia, Cough and tuberculosis.
- Less complication.
- Elimination of disease.
- Nice taste and smell.
After Vamana therapy has been undertaken, it is important to exercise a few precautions such as:-
- Over-eating should not be done.
- Natural desire should be withheld.
- A person should not get irritated or feel anxiety.
- Should not speak in a loud voice.
2. Virechana karma
It’s a therapy for treating pitta and dosha ailments. Here, doshas are removed via anus route (opening at the excretory end of the alimentary canal). It is one the most easily and pain-free procedure of curing some disorders.
Fever, Asthma, Skin infection, Jaundice, Headache, Profuse bleeding, Constipation, Loss of appetite, Gastric problem and Indigestion.
Complete rest and light food.
3. Basti karma
It is one of the major panchakarma therapies and is made of Basti (animal’s urinary bladder). It is used for curing Vata ailments and is also brought into use to correct dosha imbalance.
ELEMENT OF BASTI KARMA
Anuvasana Basti is that part of Basti karma in which oily material is used. Stiffness, increase in appetite are few symptoms of Anuvasana Basti.
When this therapy is undertaken, followings things are experienced: Good mood, Appropriate passing of urine, correct balance of doshas and augmentation in strength.
Fever, Weakness, Headache, bad-temper, Swelling, inflammation in joints, etc.
1. Increase in weight of thin people.
2. Reduction in obesity.
3. Improvement in eye-vision.
4. Good health, longevity.
Anxiety people should avoid traveling and standing for a lengthy period, oversleeping and sexual intercourse.
4. Nasya karma
A synonym of Nasya karma is Sirovirechana Karma. In this Pradhanakarma therapy, medicines are given through the nasal (nose) route. Nasya karma is effective in treating disorders in nose, head, eyes, ears, throat infection and speech, etc. There are 4 types of Nasya therapies:
• NAVANA NASYA
Putting drops of medicated oil in the nose.
• AUAPIDA NASYA
Giving fluid extract of medicine via the nose.
• DHAMAPANA NASYA
Medicated vapors are gulped via nasal route and are removed through the mouth.
• PRADHDMANA NASYA
Intake of powder with water.
Stiffness in neck & mouth, pain in the ear, roughness in voice, inflammation in tonsils, headache and variation in voice.
Good and sound sleep, pleasant feeling and lightness felt in head and body.
A person should not get irritated, should avoid laughing, swallowing, gargle. Icy water and oily food must be avoided besides keeping away from dust and smoke.
5. Rakta Mokshan Karma
Rakta Mokshan karma constitutes of two words; Rakta (blood) and Mokshan (remove or eradicate). So, the whole procedure of Rakta Mokshan involves removing defective blood from the body.
Two ways are adopted when using this therapy: first is by the use of a metallic device or by the use of leeches. It’s a kind of artificial out-take of blood.
It is very useful in the treatment of skin infections, inflammation of joints, blood-related ailments, elephantiasis.
Rakta Mokshan therapy should not be administered on young children, old-age people, and pregnant women.
Pramana, in the English language, means Evidence, proof or facts. It is a way of establishing, finding and supporting truth (reality).
The bona fide implication of Pramana is acknowledged only when there is no ray of hope and everything seems to be coming towards the end.
It’s a fundamental branch of the law in every country. According to Buddhists scriptures, the two most notable scholars of Pramana philosophy are Dignaga and Dharmakirti.
The essence of Pramana lies in the fact that the means by which true knowledge or truth is checked or verified and fiction is put to end. In terms of the law, there is a thin line of evidence between truth and lie.
In fact, justice is acquired only when the truth prevails. It can be of any type such as words (written or spoken), pictures, eye-witness and an object of any type can also be a Pramana.
Pramana can be classified into two categories:
The above-mentioned terms have been further classified into sub-categories as follows:
Pratyaksha (perceivable through the senses or visible), Anumana (inference, presumption or hypothesis), Yukti (Policy, maneuver, reason or skill), Aptopdesha.
Prayiaksha, Anuman (Corollary, theory, guess or apprehension), Upamana (that with which something is compared), Aptopdesha, Pratyaksha (Cognizable by sight, evident, apparent or tangible).
The consequence is decided by the brain; that acts as the center of all decisions. Brain gets all the inputs or necessary from the senses (smell, seeing, touch, hear) and process the Pramana to arrive at a judgment.
It is information obtained by means of supposition. Anuman means guess or anticipation of something.
It is one of the basic qualities of human beings to anticipate the turn of events. Circumstances at the moment influence a person’s power of anticipation to a great extent. Sometimes, we anticipate or expect things to act in our own way.
For instance, as the result of examination draw nearer, we expect it to be good or say want we want our mind to believe. In the case of anxiety, we tend to rely on our institution or Anuman.
B. Yukti Praman
Yukti means skill, expertise or proficiency. So, Yukti Praman would mean planning and doing something according to one’s ability and area of expertise. It is considered that planning done in accordance with intelligence is always successful in implementation
C. Upman Praman
Upman means comparison. In Upman Praman, there is always some level of comparison between two similar things that have the superior and inferior tag attached to it. In cases of law, two different pieces of evidence are always measured against each other.
D. Aptopdesha Praman
Aptopdesha means the words of an erudite or intellectual person that are considered final, authoritative and of importance. In ancient India, Aptopdeshas were given by priests, kings, high-ranking officials, etc and contained some kind of secret and coded information.
The philosophy of knowledge is slightly different from that of truth because when a person gains knowledge, he or she becomes aware of the subject but it is not always real. Knowledge can be implanted also whereas it is the truth that distinguishes knowledge from its virtue.
Ayurveda, the science of life and its different branches, have its own aims and objectives which are known as Prayojan. Ayurveda deals with other branches of life along with medicine.
You can see that the aims and the objectives of Ayurveda can be seen in Shloka Charak Su 30/26.
In these shlokas, one can see that health is given the highest priority for leading a happy, healthy and spiritual life.
Ayurvedic concepts discuss the importance of maintaining one’s health, and moreover, if the health is lost or a person is in a diseased state, it discusses the methods to rejuvenate life in him/her.
To analyze individual constitution, and understand the variations in disease manifestations, the theory of Ayurveda is the best. The connection and the relationship between the mind and body are also best described only in Ayurveda.
Based on the unique approach of Ayurveda, the aims and objectives were divided into two aspects. They are:
- Swasthasya Swathy Rakshanam or Preventive and Social Medicine.
- Aturasya Vikar Prashamanam or Therapeutics.
Dravya Chikitsa or treatment with medicines and a form of bhava Chikitsa or treatment without medicines combined together to form Therapeutics.
Therapeutics also medicates through Achar Rasayan, which means good personal as well as good social conduct. Scriptures have a detailed explanation of these two objectives that are defined in a concise statement.
The unique features of Ayurveda are the four Chatushtayas.
Good human life is based on these four Chatushtayas.
If these four Chatushtayas are followed, it is not only possible to maintain good health but also treat any disease whatever caused it, when one is affected by it.
Most of the people are aware that Ayurveda treats diseased or ailing people, but most of us are not aware that it also helps to maintain good health and also to find the signs and symptoms of any disease or ailment, and its origin.
Charak, one of the known reorganizers of Ayurveda, had mentioned that one cannot excuse himself or herself, thinking that one does not know the procedure to maintain his or her health, and should take pains to read and understand the rules and regulations needed to maintain good health or to treat the ailments or diseases one is inflicted with, in his Shloka Chark Sutrasthan 5/103.
You should understand that these are guidelines for remaining fit, refraining from diseases, and for leading a healthy life.
Swasthavrutta, a topic in Ayurveda deals and explains these aims and objections. If one is affected by any disease, in spite of taking all the precautionary measures, then it is important that one digs down to the source of the disease, and the reasons causing it.
Moreover, one should also find out where he or she had lacked in following those guidelines or missed out on any detail due to which the disease could have attacked them.
Sometimes, ignorance, laziness, lack of interest in health and environment could be the reason for the disease to be caused. Due to this factor, the second objective in Aaturasya Vikara Prashamana is written and described.
The final element of the five great elements is Prithwi Mahabharata. The sense of smell is the attribute of its main sense, and Kharatwa or roughness is the main property of Prithvi Mahabharata.
Earth is another name of Prithwi. According to the religions based on Hinduism Prithvi is known as mother or goddess and is one of the wives of Lord Vishnu.
Prithvi and its attribute and property constitute the building blocks of creation.
The entire complex and complicated universe constituting both the living and non-living matter is created with the help of this Mahabharata and its attributes and the property.
The word Prithvi gets its derivation from the ancient Greek word PIE which means she who is flat or broad. Earth, the mother is considered to be a complementary half of sky or space, the father in the Vedas. Dhra, Dhrithi, Dharthi, and so on are the other words of Prithvi which mean holds everything.
Most of our bodily ailments are due to instability in the equilibrium of the five great elements or Mahabharata. With the help of the science of hand and finger postures, known as Mudra, one can cure their bodily ailments, wherein the five great elements are balanced by increasing or decreasing the levels of each element to their optimal levels. Prithvi Mudra is one of the mudras in which the tip of the thumb is touched to the fore part of the third finger.
This mudra helps in removing physical weakness, increases tolerance and patience, stabilizes the body equilibrium, and in practicing meditation. All these problems are solved by balancing the Prithvi element in the body.
The five great elements are used also used by Vasthu Shastra, the science of space and architecture, evolved in India helps create space and environment so that the health, prosperity, and spirituality are enhanced.
Prithvi is also mentioned in Yoga. It is believed that through Prithvi Dharan if anyone penetrates through Muladhara Chakra, the one that is located at the spinal column’s base, Prithvi Thatva is conquered. It indicates that one need not fear death due to or from the earth.
Shabda means sound or vibration, which is a property of space and is one of the characteristics of the soul. The state of the merger of Shabda with surat is known as Avigat Purush. Prithvi is present in the properties like Rupa or vision, Rasa or taste, and Gandha or smell.
Prithvi Shabda means the sound of the earth. All seven types of rupa are present in Prithvi. They are Shukla or white, Nila or blue, Pita or yellow, Harita or green, Kapish or brown, Rakta or red, and Chitra or spotted. Moreover, the six tastes or rasa are possessed by Prithvi.
They are Madhura or sweet, Amla or sour, Lavan or salt, Tikta or bitter, Katu or chilly, and Kashaya or alum like the taste. Only the Prithvi Mahabhootha has the property of Gandha or smell. The two types of Gandha are Surbhi or good smell, and Asurbhi or bad smell.
Prithvi or the earth is the only place that is proved to be inhabited by both living and non-living things. The smell is the subtle principle of earth. It is also believed that the dissolution of several gases in the water created the gross element, Earth.
Exhibiting the shapes, absorbing water, occupying space, revealing the bodily characteristics of the living and non-living beings, and so on are the qualities of Prithvi.